Classification: Taxonomic ranks under review (cf. Illustrated Guide to Protozoa, Allen Press). Protista (unicellular eukaryotes) Ciliophora (with cilia, nuclear . Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan that causes. “Ich” or “white spot disease.” This disease is a major prob- lem to aquarists and commercial fish. The name Ichthyophthirius multifilis translates to “fish louse with many children”, a title that fits well, as each parasite may produce more than a.

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Most aquacultured channel catfish in the southeast United States are reared in ponds. The mature parasite is large and dark due to thick cilia covering the entire cell. Ichthophthirius FilipodiumPlatyproteum. Causes, Treatment, and Prevention”.

This causes the fish to become less tolerant to low oxygen concentrations in the water. White spots should never be used as the only means of diagnosis because other diseases may have a similar appearance.

Prevention of the disease includes an effective quarantine protocol, using separate equipment for each tank, buying tank plants which have never been in contact with fish, detecting and treating an infection promptly. Because the sticky cyst of the tomonts may attach to organic material, cleaning this debris will help remove many cysts from the environment, further decreasing the number of emergent multifiiis.

Prior to the appearance of white spots, fish may have shown signs of irritation, flashing, weakness, loss of appetite, and decreased activity. Contrary to popular belief, white-spot is not present in every aquarium or pond.


Following a period of days warm water temperatures or weeks cool water temperaturesthe theronts bore out of the tomont cyst and become free-swimming, infective parasites in search of a fish host. The fishes’ breathing can slow, causing them to rest on the sand or gravel. The gelatinous wall of the tomont cyst protects it and the daughter tomites from chemical treatment. Oligohymenophorea Fish diseases Ectoparasites Veterinary protozoology.

Visible Ich lesions are usually seen as one or several characteristic white spots on the body or fins of the fish.

CIR/FA Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish

Closed culture systems are particularly at risk of sustained contamination and outbreaks. A small area of gill or fin may also be carefully clipped using small, sharp scissors. When Ich is diagnosed early, effective treatment is muultifiliis, and stresses are minimized, mortality rates can be low. This article has been peer reviewed but is awaiting expert review. Methylene blue is commonly available for aquarium stores.

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Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, The role of water temperature in determining the timing of treatment application is also critical and is discussed in more detail below.

Babesiidae Babesia Theileriidae Theileria. Navigation menu Personal tools Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology.

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Cichlid showing the white spots characteristic of ich Scientific classification Domain: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ichthyophtiriosis. Southern regional Aquaculture Center, Publication No. Copper is multifilis common and effective treatment for this parasite. In a tank or vat, this process can be greatly enhanced if organic debris is removed following treatment.


Ichthhyophthirius several “white spots” from an infected fish, then mount them on a microscope slide ichthhyophthirius a few drops of water and cover with glass. These cysts produce hundreds of infective stages tomites which are released as swarmers theronts which actively seek new hosts. This means that an outbreak will occur until all remaining fish are immune.

Market availability iichthyophthirius, these products are approved to treat external parasites on all species of fish at all life stages. Outbreaks occur when conditions are favourable for rapid multiplication of the parasite. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptocaryon irritans as examples”. If you would like to help with this, please see more information about expert reviewing.

Temperature affects how quickly the parasites multiply, so increasing the temperature can force them through their life cycle more quickly, allowing treatments to target Ichthyophthirius in its theront stage. These factors include decreased temperature, predatory cues crowding or fightingand increased levels of UV-B radiation. An increase multfiiliis parasites in the aquarium is the most common cause but severe stress, old age, or malnutrition can all lead to this condition.